Monday, 28 May 2018

Guman

Guman (gümân) sözcüğü Kürdçeden başka Türkçe, Arapça, Farsça gibi ve eski Sanskrit dillerde (Zend dilinde yazıldığı Avesta kitabı ve Pehlevice) rastlanmaktadır. Arkaik bir sözcük olması, iki zıt (olumlu: inanma, olumsuz: şüphelenme) anlamlar taşıması, özellikle hala Xalikan[1] Kürdlerin sözlü literatüründe (hafızasında) mevcut olması, bu yazının hazırlanmasında belirleyici olmuştur.

1Xalikan (Halikan) Kürdleri büyük bir coğrafyaya dağılmış bir topluluktur. Orta Anadolu'da, Konya ve Ankara vilayetlerin arasında yaşayan Xalikanlı Kürdler ise, üç büyük köye (Xalko-Jor / Karacadağ, Xalko-Jêr / Gölyazı, Qemero / Yapalı) yerleşmişlerdir. Xalikanlı'lar Kürdlerin Kurmancî lehçesinde konuşmaktadırlar. Xalko Jor Kürdleri, Konya vilayetinin Kulu ilçesine bağlı olan Karacadağ köyünde yaşamaktadırlar.

INDIR

Friday, 24 November 2017

Zoroastrian Calendar – Mah

MEHER DAVAR – THE DIVINE JUDGE – NOSHIR H. DADRAWALA

In the Zoroastrian Calendar the year comprises twelve Mah (months) with each month aggregating exactly thirty Roj (days) and thus a year of three hundred and sixty days to which are added the stand-alone five days of the Gathawhich are not linked to any particular month.

The fifteenth day every month is dedicated to Dae-Meher and the sixteenth day to Meher Yazata. Where the twelve Mah are concerned, the seventh month is dedicated to Meher. Hence, Meher occupies a central position in the monthly and annual time cycle.

Meherangan is celebrated when Roj Meher coincides with Mah Meher. According to folklore this day commemorates the victory of light over the forces of darkness and good over the forces of evil. It is the day when the legendary spiritual King, Shah Faridoon enchains Zohak or Azi Dahak, the epitome of evil to that great spiritual mountain called Damavand in Iran.

According to legend, Zohak (the living embodiment of evil) is still chained to mount Damavand. It is said, every night when darkness grows, the forces of evil gain strength and the chains weaken. However, at the crack of dawn when the cock crows and there is sunlight, the chains are again secured and the evil one is rendered powerless. This is an important truth in nature, wrapped in an easy-to understand legend. Neither darkness nor evil has its own existence. Darkness is merely the absence of light and evil the absence of good. The only way to negate darkness is with light and the only way to dispel evil is through thoughts, words and deeds that are good.

The Avestan name for Meher Yazata is Mithra — the Divinity presiding over all oaths, promises, contracts, bonds, friendship and love. Avestan Mithrafinds an echo in the Sanskrit word Mitra which means friend. The equivalent of Mithra in the Hebrew tradition would be Micha-el or the later Archangel Michal of the New Testament who leads God’s army in war against the forces of Satan.

The Romans too were so inspired with Mithra (Mithras to the Greeks) that Mithraism was practiced as a religion across the mighty Roman Empire between the first and the fourth century A.D. The temples of Mithras were always an underground cave, featuring a relief of Mithras killing the bull. Many scholars believe that this is related to cosmic astronomy, where the bull represents the constellation of Taurus.

In the Zoroastrian tradition Meher is referred to as Meher Davar or Judge who presides over the trial of the soul on the chahrom or fourth day after death.

Meher is also depicted as light or more specifically sunlight. Therefore, the Khurshed and Meher Niyaish go together hand in hand and are recommended as daily obligatory (Faraziyat) prayers.

The Meher Yasht is one of the longest of the Avestan Hymns. It embodies invocations for mercy and protection. Mithra being the Divinity of heavenly light is depicted as knower of the truth and one that sees everything. He is therefore the Divine Witness of truth and protector of oaths and promises.

Praying the Meher Niyaesh together with the Khurshed Niyaesh or the much more elaborate Meher Yasht is considered spiritually beneficial. It dispels the darkness of ignorance and untruth and strengthens the devotee with a high sense of truth, justice and commitment.

Meher Yazata is also the presiding deity over all rituals and ritual spaces and therefore Zoroastrian places of worship, especially in Iran are referred to as Dar-e-Meher or Darb=e-Meher which means ‘House of Meher Yazata’ or the ‘House of Light’.

The name Meher is popular among Parsis and though Mithra or Meher is a male Divinity, the name is commonly used by both gender. There are also other name variants. For example among the male — Mehernosh and Meherzad and among female Mehernaz and Meherangis!

 

Saturday, 10 June 2017

NÎK

Kürdler'de tevn halı dokuma sanatı oldukça eski bir gelenektir. Bu yüzden kullanılan terimlerin, orijin olma ihtimali oldukça yüksektir. Bu gelenek, teknoloji, kültür erozyonu, modernleşme ve hatta müdahalelere uzak olduğu için de, Kürd kültürünün önemli miraslarından birisidir. Bu sanat ile ilgili kullanılan terimlerin çoğu şimdilerde günlük hayatta kullanılmamaktadır. Tevn temaları yüzyıllara dayanır (dünyada bulunan en eski halı M.Ö. 3. – 4. yüzyıla ait), bu süreç içinde farklı akımların etkisi altına girmiş ve o dönemlerin özelliklerini de içinde alarak günümüze kadar gelebilmiş bir sanattır. Dolaysıyla, bu gibi konuların derinlemesi incelenmesi ve her terimin özel olarak tek tek ele alınması, Kürdlerin gizemli tarihi hakkında bir çok ipuçu verecektir.

İNDİR

Friday, 31 March 2017

Kurdi: Sorani

Sorani vocabulary – Fas Harvard

Circumflexed vowels follow uncircumflexed vowels in alphabetization. The furtive i is indicated by italicization, e.g. bâwik ‘father’ but bâwkî ‘his father.’ Abbreviations: adj. = adjective; cond. = conditional; demon. = demonstrative; imprs. = impersonal (verb is always in the 3rd person singular); impt. = imperative; pl. = plural; pron. = pronoun; sing. = singular; subj. = subjunctive; pres. = present; v.i. = verb intransitive; v.p. = verb passive; v.t. = verb transitive (transitive implies that the past tense is formed on the ergative model, not that the verb necessarily takes a direct object either in Kurdish or in English). Generally, compound verbs are listed under the nonverbal element of the compound; compounds with frequently-occurring elements like dâ-, hał-, and pe- are listed under the verb.


زمانى (ورديى سۆرانى —Sorani Kurdish— A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings W. M. Thackston

KURDISH BELONGS to the Western Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. The two principal branches of modern literary Kurdish are (1) Kurmanji, the language of the vast majority of Kurds in Turkey, Syria, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, the area designated by Kurdish nationalists as “North Kurdistan,” with an estimated fifteen to seventeen million speakers, and (2) Sorani, the language of most Kurds in Iraq (four to six million speakers) and Iran (five to six million speakers), the area designated as “South Kurdistan.” Although the two are closely related, Kurmanji and Sorani are not mutually intelligible and differ at the basic structural level as well as in vocabulary and idiom. Since Kurdish is fairly closely related to and has been massively influenced by Persian, the dominant literary and cultural language of the area for the last millennium, Kurdish is best approached with a basic knowledge of Persian. While Kurmanji is still far from being a unified, normalized, or standardized language, Sorani has been the second official language of Iraq since the creation of that country after World War I and has many decades of literary activity behind it. In Iran, Kurdish has never been accorded official status, but in Iranian Kurdistan there has been noteworthy publication in Kurdish, particularly after the Iranian revolution. The area in which Sorani is spoken in Iran is more or less the region designated as Kurdistan. Outside of that area, south to Kermanshah and east as far as Bijar, the language is known as Gorani, or South Sorani, which is a a Mischsprache that is basically Persian in structure but Kurdish in vocabulary. 

Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Avesta

TEACH YOURSELF AVESTA
A beginner‟s guide to the SCRIPT, GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE of the Zoroastrian scriptural texts By Ramiyar Parvez Karanjia June 2011

Avesta is the oldest extant Iranian language. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian family of languages. It is the mother of other Iranian languages like Old Persian, Middle Persian, Kurdish, Pashtu and Ossetic. Avesta heads the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian language, just as Vedic Sanskrit is the source for the Indian branch, which has languages like Hindustani, Bengali and Marathi. The striking similarity between Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan is on account of their common origin.


English-Avesta Dictionary by K.E. Kanga (avesta.org)

Sunday, 19 March 2017

Kurdish Studies

Ancient Rites and Old Religions in Kurdistan, Lokman Turgut, 2013. 

Ethnic, religious and linguistic groups with relatively well-attested written histories such as the Armenians, have more often been the subject of scholarly discussions, whereas Kurds and related religious and linguistic groups has scarcely been the subject of scholarly work. At the time when I was conducting interviews for my PhD thesis1, I came across traces of possibly old religions and various practices of them. In order to communicate these findings and to discuss the place of Kurdistan in the religious history of the Iranian civilisation, I present a discussion of ancient rites and old religions in Kurdistan under the following two titles: “Black Wednesday and Red Wednesday: Survivals in Kuridsh Tradition of Rites Marking Season Changes” and “The Shemsi and Old Religions in Kurdistan”.

 

Thursday, 16 March 2017

F. Torinî Xallkonî

GUMAN

Guman (gümân) sözcüğü Kürdçeden başka Türkçe, Arapça, Farsça gibi ve eski Sanskrit dillerde (Zend dilinde yazıldığı Avesta kitabı ve Pehlevice) rastlanmaktadır. Arkaik bir sözcük olması, iki zıt (olumlu: inanma, olumsuz: şüphelenme) anlamlar taşıması, özellikle hala Xalikan[1] Kürdlerin sözlü literatüründe (hafızasında) mevcut olması, bu yazının hazırlanmasında belirleyici olmuştur.

1Xalikan (Halikan) Kürdleri büyük bir coğrafyaya dağılmış bir topluluktur. Orta Anadolu'da, Konya ve Ankara vilayetlerin arasında yaşayan Xalikanlı Kürdler ise, üç büyük köye (Xalko-Jor / Karacadağ, Xalko-Jêr / Gölyazı, Qemero / Yapalı) yerleşmişlerdir. Xalikanlı'lar Kürdlerin Kurmancî lehçesinde konuşmaktadırlar. Xalko Jor Kürdleri, Konya vilayetinin Kulu ilçesine bağlı olan Karacadağ köyünde yaşamaktadırlar.

guman-20.12.2017

NÎK

Kürdler'de tevn halı dokuma sanatı oldukça eski bir gelenektir. Bu yüzden kullanılan terimlerin, orijin olma ihtimali oldukça yüksektir. Bu gelenek, teknoloji, kültür erozyonu, modernleşme ve hatta müdahalelere uzak olduğu için de, Kürd kültürünün önemli miraslarından birisidir. Bu sanat ile ilgili kullanılan terimlerin çoğu şimdilerde günlük hayatta kullanılmamaktadır. Tevn temaları yüzyıllara dayanır (dünyada bulunan en eski halı M.Ö. 3. – 4. yüzyıla ait), bu süreç içinde farklı akımların etkisi altına girmiş ve o dönemlerin özelliklerini de içinde alarak günümüze kadar gelebilmiş bir sanattır. Dolaysıyla, bu gibi konuların derinlemesi incelenmesi ve her terimin özel olarak tek tek ele alınması, Kürdlerin gizemli tarihi hakkında bir çok ipuçu verecektir.


10 Heziran
2017

RÜZGÂRIN PEŞİNDEN

Bu makale çok sınırlı kaynak derlemesine dayanmaktadır. Bu yüzden yazı boyunca öne sürülenlerin çok daha fazla bir çalışma gerekmektedir. Eldeki veriyi, tekil de olsa, belki başka çalışmalara vesile olabilir umuduyla işleme ihtiyacı duyuldu. Bu araştırma, İç Anadolu Kürtleri arasında yapılan bir derleme esnasında karşılaşılan ve bir kuş ismi olan 'SARTUNG' ile başlandı. Bu terimin, hem lengüistik ve hem de tarihsel yönü ele alınarak, diğer dillerle olan bağlantılarının saptanmasına gidildi. Özellikle, sartung kelimesinin bileşenlerinden,“tung / tûng” sonekine odaklanılmıştır: kelimenin semantik özelliği, bölge diliyle temas ettiği muhtemel tarihsel dönem ve coğrafya sorgulanılmıştır.


18 Mart 2017

ZIVISTAN'LA GELEN BEREKET

Bu makale Ankara ve Konya arasında yaşayan Xalîkan (Halikan) Kürd topluluğunun kış mevsimine dair kültürel geleneklerini sunmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bunun için yapılan derlemelerde özellikle şimdilerde unutulmaya yüz tutmuş, eski halk takviminin izleri ve kavramları öne çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışma daha çok bu kavramları esas alarak şekil aldı. Buna rağmen, veriler yalnız yöredeki Kürdlerin değil, genel olarak Kürd kültürünün birikimini yansıtması açısından bir ön çalışma olarak değerlendirilebilir.


12 Mart 2017

Friday, 24 February 2017

The Kurds & Sasanian Empire

Citation from The Book of Iran: The History of Iranian Art, by Habibollah Ayotallahi, Translated by Shermin Haghshenas

THE ART OF THE SASANI DYNASTY PAGE – 116
A) The Characteristics and Nature of Ardeshir
Fars is one of the provinces that preserved its independent rule throughout the parthion period in spite of pledging to Parthian dynasty to act as the protector of Zoroastrianism and the Persian traditions of the Achaemenids. During the last century of the Parthian rule, this area was ruled by a prominetn figure called ''BABAK'' who considered himself a descendant of SASAN, one of the great religious and political men of Fars and the Achaemenid territory. Babak controlled the political and religious leadership of the inhabitans of Fars and chose the city Istakhr, near Persepolis as the centre of this rule. He had coins minted in his name and only followed the Pathian rules in political matters. His son Ardeshir called Artakshir in ancient Persioan, created an army and expanded his realm taking over Kerman and almost all of southern Persia. After the death of this father, as king and religious leader and having gained control of the two large provinces of Fars and Kerman, he moved the capital from Darabgird, the centre of this father's rule, to GUR in present day FIRUZABAD and built himself a large and magnifient palace. ADDAVA (Artabanus) 5th who was also Ardeshir's father-in-law reprimanded him in a letter and wrote: "You wrethched KURD, how did you dare to build such a royal residence? It was this insulting complaint that set off Ardeshir's campaign agaisnt ARDAVAN and took his place on throne. From this point onward GUR became known as ARDESHIR-KHURRA, i.e. "Glory of Ardeshir".

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